Thursday, October 1, 2009


The examination of mining competency examination conducted by DGMS is a hallmark in the career path of mining executives. This examination has created many inter and intra disciplinary anomalies. This examination has also disrupted uniformity of not only education system, but also polluted drastically the cordial feeling of organizational-behavior.

We are still following the Britishers system till date. Many times' reformatory revolution has been bubbled up by in the past ( 1968 to 1971 ) by mining graduates, but at every time it has been suppressed surreptitiously. So the condition of the industry is completely down, because it has never put an outlook of equal eye regarding development of their front managers.
The historical perspective of statutorily institution of manager competency certificate was made under first Mines Act, which was enacted on 22 march 1901 after occurrence of two major disaster at Kolar Gold Field in 1897 and at Khost Coal mine ,Baluchistan (British India ) in 1898 .During pre-independence period there was not a single mining institution /College to give standard education about mining technology .So there was an acute shortage of mining engineers.Only the ENGLISHMEN resumed the duties of administrative Posts. tHE Englishmen SOME CERTIFIED INDIAN PERSONS to work in hazardeous underground mines and give them direct benefit following the norms specified by international labour organization .To cope this requirement they started to issue manager competency examination simply a literate person on acquiring some practical experience .

This was the main reason how the concept of manager competency certificate was felt as a minimum requirement to impart safety -attitude .Now a century had been elasped and a drastic change in education pattern and system have also taken place . Recent scientific and technological advancement have changed the whole life style .Morever ,in this present context ,there are sufficient engineering and diploma college private institutions to educate young mining engineers .Then there is no need of conducting such examination which are still framed to follow old norms of gas testing by safety -lamp .Now-a-days ,I seems rather a ridicolus these examinations still requires minimum eligibity criteria as simply a literate person who knows only to sign his name .In the computer -era one can get every bit of information of the world in a small -room in a fraction of second .Management Information System and Teleconferencing System are the major tools of the modern -management .History again reveals that less educated persons also turned as a chairman of the coal industry under the facade of practical experience.

The anamoly in career growth in mining discipline is not a new topic , but it is a century -old subject. these anamoly appeared publicly since a last decade due to some selfish elements strived for the benefit of their beloved and warmed their own hands underneath their pockets.Ex- DGMS capt. B>N> Singh was caught red handed taking bribes for promulagating big irreguralities in these competency examination . This was main reason behind postponement of examinations ffor a period of five years from 1995 to 2000 . This was again a fatal blow on the future of the degree -holders who wer appointed in 1993 and onwards because they could not get any chance to appear in the examination . They never pondered positively to run the perpetual –mechanism of the company in a long run. Their ocular vision had vehemently broken the system of survival except the deep agony and frustration left foor their own youngersters !
The competent authority , on other hand , used the merit part of examination as a personal tool of getting undue advantage.The promotion -policy made by company was so flexible , whenever they decide they distribute the promotions very freely taking the criteria of this examination . Ultimately the system has completely failed to stick with uniform policy of career development of mining –cadre. Frequently, competent authority has changed their own norms and suggested to remove anamoly among intra discipline. But at every time the implementation of their suggestion again created very complex situation and raised “DISASTROUS ANAMOLIES”. The same examination conducted under MINES ACT, 1956 in other public sector organization e.g. HINDUSTAN ZINC LIMITED, HINDUSTAN COPPER LIMITED, NALCO ETC there is not a single provision / criteria to provide any “jump” in higher echelon of their cadre. This examination is nothing but a very much powerful stirrer to create a lot of intolerable enforced anamolies.Now ,Are you ready to introspect yourselves and search the answers within your - spirit as given below ? I f you were the justice to rectify these anamolies ,what will be your bold - steps in this regards putting your one hand on your heart and other hand on your head ? Kindly give your justified reply to us .

Layman to consider a the following facts
§ Is the status of the examination is so and turn high that one can get jump from E2 TO E4?
§ Is the examination adequate to forward one career UPTO E5 within a very short span of their career, say 6to9 years, although three years practical experience is also required to appear in the said examination.
§ Is the examination has its own creditworthiness which created a lot of anamoly and destroyed the career of many young mining engineers?
§ Is this examination is so much practical that can be given more weight age than other professional examination like ICWA, MBA, MD,Ph.d etc ?
§ Is this examination is a " MAGIC ROD OR MIDAS TOUCH " that can convert all iron particle into gold –ornaments?
§ Is this examination not converging a broader -outlook through a very thin slit of narrowness?
§ Does any examining -authority propose to adopt this step -behavior of anamolus promotion?
§ Is it a right step to interlink this examination with promotion -policy of any mining -industry ?
§ It is a universal fact that the national and international repute examination are also not justified for jump over promotion -ladder, then what is the criteria to consider this competency very much enough to provide heaven to somebody and hell to other , Where as this is a departmental examination limited to mining community only comprised of field candidates, diploma and degree holders

UPSC conducts countrywide competition under the aegis of central government such as IAS ,IPS ,IFS etc for delivering different services of district -administration ,Foreign ,Forest Police and the other allied services every year .The minimum eligibity criteria for appearing in these all examinations require a graduate in any discipline with first class marks . State public service commission also applies the same procedure. Even minimum graduation qualification is also a necessary condition for teachers, although they are not responsible any statutory responsibility. Then it seems very ridiculous that highly responsible services of mining industry do not require any minimum academic qualification till today . How will the significance of this examination be realized fruitfully in management pyramid penetrating through each hierarchy from higher to lower level?

It is the philosophical truth that, engineering colleges and schools are the educational laboratories that provide psychogical and practical experimentation in-group - dynamics and an atmosphere of how to think in engineering way. This examination pattern and styles have broken this classical attitude and have not left any stone unturned to dust the glory of IIT College and other reputed universities. The approach of this examination is to make an amalgamation of approved inequalities, where the education system of INDIA has already differentiated broadly among degree, diploma and field- candidates. An average secondary class student can easily get admission in Diploma College, but an engineering graduate has to cross the barricade of cut -throat competition to get admission after 10+2.Moreover, they have to work very hard to cover very thick syllabus approved by government. Where as a field -candidate is purely free-lancer?

The success in this examination randomly imbalances the whole sentimental -status and career -scenario, irrespective of their background qualification. The word competency always produces ambiguous meaning. Exactly, this competency examination is nothing but basically a sequential repeatation of very old syllabus starting from mining sirdar, overman and finally second class manager competency examination mainly extracted from UNIVERSAL MININNG SCHOOL NOTES.

Then it become very much easy for diploma and field -candidates to pass this examination. Very profound educationists, academicians have also differentiated and bench-marked the pattern of education, then this competency examination claim to equalize all inputs .The ambiguity of competency darkened the bright future of dynamic managers and made them mentally handicapped. To pass the examination needs nothing, but a rigorous revision i.e." parroting” of coal mines regulation, Mines- acts, Mines-rule and other small statutory booklets .The diploma holders, free-lancers, and job -bluffers/ cheaters have always taken the advantage of high frequency of revision of the subjects. Hence the success rate of these persons is an alarming. The engineered, analytical and qualitative brain of degree -holders fail to adopt the memory - mapping, hence they loose their career. How do mining -graduate s lose their careeranamolus promotion -policy based on this competency examination? It has been tried to elaborate these anamolies into three different - categories .
ENTRY: The entry of mining personnel has been categorised as below:



The literate person can rise upto higher level management. Their steps are very simple just by passing gas testing examination,sirdar examination,overmanship examination then second and at last first class examination .These all examination are practical based and continuous mugging –up of the same syallabus. Since non-executives Have more practical experience and less responsibility of supervison And decision –making make them to speed –up their career.

Thursday, September 3, 2009



“An assisted/private siding is a siding constructed to serve a Government department, a factory, mill, other industries, one or other private party under a special agreement”.

a) Assisted siding:-
· Cost is a party borne by the applicant and partly by Railway.
· Incidence of cost governed by Para 1826E [Engineering Code and 1827E]
b) Private Siding:- Entire cost borne by the applicant.
c) Military Siding:-
· To meet the special requirement of defence department.
· Incidence of cost governed by under para 1803E 1804E.

d) Public Siding:-
· Public Siding is Railway siding laid out at a distance from mine Station/good sheds.
· Open for all traffic both in ward and out ward.

· Can be used by all consignors/consignees/Endorsees desirous of using of same.
e) Departmental Siding:-
· Used for Railway own department.
· Used by PWIs/IOWs are known as departmental siding.
· Execution by siding Holder with the Railway regarding term and condition for siding.
· DRM arrange a certified true copy of the agreement along with a copy of blue print of siding.

· Siding users are forbidden to sublet either part or whole without written permission from the Railway Administration.
· Siding owner will also give a written undertaking to Railway to this effect.


Wagons/vehicles detained by the siding user over and above free time shall be subject to payment of demurrage charges at the rate in force is notified by individual Railway Administration in their local tariffs and rate . Now-a days for pilot to pilot system has been discarded. DC is Rs75/- per wagon per hour now a days.


In addition to freight charges to end from the station serving the siding, siding charges at the rate laid down in the agreement or notified separately by the Railway Administration for dealing with the traffic at the siding should be recovered from the siding users. Surcharges and supplementary charges, where due should also be levied on the siding charges. Siding charges are fixed on wagon basis/ trip basis where a wagon supplied for loading in the siding is not utilized and is hauled back empty demurrage charges due under the rules should be recovered in addition to the siding charges. Siding charges may be revised after one year by giving a notice of the month.
Siding charges is given as below from 15.07.2007:-
a. Diesel Engine = Rs.235/- per wagon
b. Electric Engine = Rs.550/- per wagon
The Siding owner should pay annually to the Railway Administration interest and maintenance charges as follows:-
a. Interest to be charge on the book value of the portion of the cost of siding borne by the Railway at the prevalent rate of dividend payable by Railway to the general revenue as may be fixed from time to time.
b. Repair and maintenance charges at the rate of 4½ % on the cost of the portion of siding borne by the Railway or its present day cost, whichever is higher. The cost of the portion of siding borne by Railway shall be revalued every five years in accordance with instructions issued by Railway board. The maintenance of works inside premises is the applicant own concern. However, Railway confirms the standards of work prescribed by Railway.
c. Inspection charges: In order to ensure that the track is safe for dealing with the rolling stock the Railway should undertake periodical inspection of siding, irrespective of whether the maintenance of the siding is done by Railway or the applicant and cost such periodical inspection should be recoverable from the applicant by preferring bills.
d. Land: Land rent shall also be recovered where land is provided by Railway for construction of siding.

The cost of commercial staff, if any, employed at siding for the purpose of day to day functioning of commercial activities in accordance with Railway Rules and Regulations shall be recovered periodically, monthly/ quarterly as decided, upon in agreement from the siding owners. A bill for such charges shall be preferred against siding owners endorsing a copy of bill to the associated finance branch so as to enable him to watch the recoveries.

The method of performing such bills defers from Railway to Railway, but the correct items to be included in the bill would be as under:-
a. (i) Pay = The mean of grade or actual pay, whichever is higher.
(ii) D.A. = As per rates announced by central government from time to time.
(iii) CCA & HRA = As per classification of cities where siding is provided
(iv) Interim Relief= Actual on item a(i) above.
b. Leave Salary = 15% of pay + DA +CCA + HRA + IR
(i) Pension contribution:- The recovery towards pension charges depends upon the length of service rendered by employees and the pension contribution recoverable in respect of railway employee posted in private siding should be completed in term of Table-1, Appendix-1 and IREC Vol.II (1990 Edition) and various instruction issued from time to time.
(ii) DA on Pension:- Shall be prevailing rate on pension contribution worked out.
d. Miscellaneous:- 10% on pay + DA + IR (These charges are to cover the cost of medical, welfare, passes, uniforms etc.)
e. Rest Giver:- 1/6th of bill, if Rest giver arrangement made by Railways.
As per direction of CIL, recently MCL had stopped to pay staff cost as Railway is not paying the rebate dues to MCL.

1. Customer will apply to COM of zonal Railway with a Conceptual plan of siding including serving station take off point, length of siding patterns of operation, expansion plans, whether Railway or private land is involved likely origin/ destinations and quantity of commodities to be moved. Whether traffic is getting diverted from existing station.
2. Zonal Railway after examination the proposal will issue a “No Objection Certificate”
3. Applicant should there after approach Director (Transport Planning) Railway Board after issue of Rail transport clearance (RTC) from Railway Board.
4. RTC is valid for the entire life of the project it commissioned. Otherwise validity of RTC shall be for 5 years from the date of issue till project gets commissioned. Validity of RTC lapses of the project is not committed for processing the case a fresh.
5. On approval of the plan, construction of siding can be undertaken through Railway of an approved consultant.
6. Once RTC has been issued applicant should get a detailed survey conducted either through Railway of through an approved consultant. Necessary fees are required to paid if the survey is done through Railway.

7. Charges recovered from the party are as follows:-
a. Survey: 1% for the assessed cost of the project at the stage proposal of the party for undertaking the survey as approved by the Railway. Balance amount to complete 2% of the estimated cost of the project while applying for the final approval of the completed works.
b. Final Inspection: 2% of the cost of project while applying for final approval of the complete works.
8. Subject to extant guidelines issued from time to time, the siding should have facilities for:-
(i) Provision for direct entry/exit without exchange yard.
(ii) Full rake handling facilities.
Engine on load system, as far a possible.
(iv) No mid sections take off.
(v) Locomotive for placement/ removal of rakes (electrical).
9. Applicant will pay in advance the total estimated cost of the work to be done by the Railway Administration including overhead charges as per extent rules.

· Effective from 01.01.2007 Rate circular No.228(G)/2006
· Situation ‘A’:- (N W < 5t =" 2" 5t =" 3" pol =" Penal" tl =" Tolerance"> PCC)
It aggregate payload in a rake exceeds the combined carrying capacity of the rake, the punitive charges shall be levied as follows:-
Punitive charges for extent of overloading 2t to 5t = 3 * (POL + TL) * H.C.F.
Punitive charges for extent of overloading > 5t = 5 * (POL + TL) * H.C.F.

( H.C.F= Highest Class Freight )
· Under load penalty fully paid by MCL.
· POL penalty paid by MCL except E-auction customers.
· POL penalty paid 50-50 by MCL and customers such DMNJ, BZA. APGENCO.
· Price notification No.CIL/SCM/GM(F)/PRICING/1125 DTD.12.12.2007.
· Basic price of ROM coal in MCL. (BP)/: pit hand Price of ROM:-

A.1. Additional charge of Rs.15/- per tonne. for slack coal on ROM price.
· A.2. Additional charge of Rs.165/- per tonne. for steam coal on ROM price.
· B.1. Charge of crushing for size 200-250 mm = Rs.35/- per tonne.
· B.2. Charge of crushing for size 100 mm = Rs.55/- per tonne.
· B.3. Charge of crushing for size 50 mm = Rs.70/- per tonne.
· C.1 Additional charge of transportation for lead 3-10 km = Rs.40/- per tonne.
· C.2 Additional charge of transportation for lead 10-20 km = Rs.70/- per tonne.
· C.3 Additional charge of transportation for lead 20 km = Actual.
· D. Additional charge loading of 3500 te per hr or more = Rs.18/- per tonne.
· E.Royalty= (a + bP) (i.e.- b =5% of basic price) (Notification No.3367 Dtd.01.08.07
a = Rs.70/- for Grade D & E (Group - IV)
· a = Rs.55/- for Grade F & G ( Group – V)
· F. SED = Rs.10/- per tonne.
· G. Price formula:
Real Price ( R ) = BP + B (1/2/3) + E + F
Sales Tax ( S ) = 5% R
Orissa Entry Tax ( O ) = 1% ( R + S )
Total Price = R + S + O =Rs 617.31 for Grade “F”
1. Price given in the notifications are either FOR or FOB, as the case may be surface transportation charges, where applicable would be levied extra.

2. For undertaking special sizing or beneficiation of coal, additional charge of may be negotiated between the purchaser and the producer may be realized or above the pit head prices.
3. The prices do not apply to coal sold for export.
4. For the purpose of grading of coal the specification of each grade of the coal shall be prescribed under rule 3 of the Colliery Control Rules, 2004

U H V = Useful Heat Value = 8900 – 138 ( A + M )
A = Ash Content in percentage
M = Moisture content in percentage
Note:- In case of coal having moisture less than 2% and volatile contact less than 19% the useful heat value shall be the value arrived at as above reduced by 159 K coal/ Kg. for each 1% reduction in volatile below 19% fraction pro rate.
1. For proximate Analysis:- The coal is grounded to 212 sieve and equilibrated in an atmosphere of 40°C and 60% R.H.
2. For determination of moisture inherent percent :- One gram of laboratory sample is taken and heated in an air oven at a temperature of 108°C ± 2°C for one and half to two hours.
3. For determination of Ash percent:- One gram of laboratory sample is taken in a silica dish and is heated at 815°C ± 10°C in muffle furnace for a period of one hour.

4. Unit Coal:- It is the pure coal substance free from moisture and mineral matter for most Indian coal it is given by the expression = 100 (M + 1.1A).
5. Gross & Net Calorific Value:- G C V or upper heating value is the C.V. in laboratory condition. Net C.V. or lower heating value or net effective calories (NEC) is the useful calorific value in boiler plant. The difference is essentially the latent heat of water vapors produced.
6. Definition:- As Received (AR) = Includes Total Moisture (TM)
As Dried (AD) = Includes inherent Moisture (IM) only.
Dry basis (DB) = Excludes all moisture.
Dry Ash Free ( DAF) = excludes all moisture & Ash.
7. Tolerance limits:- As per IS:1350 (Part – I) :1969
i. Moisture : As per clause No.6.6.5, the result of duplicate determination shall agree within the following limits.

ii. Ash :- As per clause No.84, the result of the duplicate determination shall agree within the following limits.

Definition of long flame :
Long flame coal shall be defined by the parameters as laid down in table 2 of Indian standard specification No IS:770-1964 general classification of coal (Recived.)
The relevant part in extracted as below:-

VM = Volatile Matter present (Unit coal basis)
GCV = Range of Gross CV (kcal/ Kg) Unit (Coal basis)
M = Range of dried moisture present at 60% R H at 40°C (mineral free coal basis)
The definition of VM and M shall be carried out on coal samples as per procedure laid down in Indian standard specification No.1350 (part – I) 1969.
The definition of GCV shall be carried out in accordance with procedure laid in 15-1350 (part – II) 1970 and bill 1971 or any subsequent revision thereof..
Type of sampling : Joint sampling, Third Party, Unilateral/ Check sample.
joint Sample:- TNEB, KIG, APGENCO, DMNJ
3rd party Sample:- MSEB (M/s. Mitra S.K. coal – inspection (I) ltd)
Check Sample:- Check samples generally drawn from loaded wagons, stocks, Bore hales to get an idea about the actual coal quality.
Sample Quantity/Procedure:- For joint sample the procedure given in the agreement copy for different parties are followed. for TNEB 18 Boxes are selected in 6 lots and approximate 900 Kg. samples are drawn.
For KIG and others 25% of the total supplied wagons randomly and approximately total 950 Kg. samples are drawn.
Coning Quartering: The entire sample crushed manually to pass 50mm size. The sample quantity is reduced by coning and quartering (Twice). Again crushes to pass 12.5 mm size. By coning and quartering, the quantity is reduced than the size is made to pass 3.00 mm size and 1.2Kg. samples are retained.
400 Gram (MCL Part) + 400 Gram ( Consumers Part) + 400 Gram (Referee) = 1.2 Kg.
For finalization of Grade in the joint sample result of MCL part and consumer’s part is tallied. If the average result not comes within the declared grade then the referee packet is sent to a mutually agreed 3rd party laboratory. For TNEB: CPRI Bangalore and the result of referee packet are accepted by both the party.
In case of 3rd party sampling the result of loading end and unloading end is taken into consideration. If the UHV difference of both the end is more then 5% of the average UHV the referee packets is send to 3rd party laboratory ( For MSEB:MECL laboratory) and the referee result is accepted for final billing.
UHV = 8900 – 138 (A % + M%)
Ash = 1- 1 Gram sample (-212mcr.) is taken a silica crucible.
2- The uncovered crucible is inserted into a muffle furnace.
3- The coal is allowed to burn by rising the temperature up to 500°C, 30 min, and 815°C in further 30 to 60 min. maintained the temperature of 815°C for 60 min or till constant weight.
4- Brought out the crucible and allowed to cool for 10 min. On a metal plate. Then cool with in a desiccators containing fused CaCl2 for 15min. Then weight and calculate Ash percentage.
Moisture = 1- 1 Gram sample is taken in a clean, dry weighed silica/glass dish.
2- Allowed to heat in a hot air oven at a temperature of 108°C ± 2°C for 1 hour or till constant weight.
3- The glass dish is allowed to cool with in a dedicators containing fused CaCl2 and then weight.
Ash = (Empty crucible weight + Ash) – Empty crucible
Moist = (Empty crucible weight + cool – (Empty crucible weight + Dry cool).


As experience gained at siding, I have visualized a lot of factors tending accident proneness enlisted as below:-
Collision of tippers.
Overturn of tippers.
Derailment of wagons.
Entry of unauthorized persons/helpers.
Breakage of overhead lines due to raised canopy of tippers.
Fall of tipper due overworking of contractual drivers.
Breaking of level Crossing Gate
Pilferage of Coal during withdrawn of rakes by children.
Insufficient clearance between overhead line and stock.
Collision of pay loaders to Wagons/tippers due inadequate braking system of payloaders.
Fire in Dozer due to overheating
Spontaneous heating/fire in heavy coal stock.
Fall of persons during checking of empty wagons from the rim of wagons.
Accident of shale-pickers/samplers during loading or transporting operations.
Accidents during shunting or deshunting of rakes to railway porter or other persons.
Accidents to track cleaning mazdoors during rake placement without any guard in the Break van
Dashing of tippers/Dozer at electric – poles.
Un-informed rake placement while weigh bridge calibration work is going on.
At random lining of tippers at railway phatak.
Undulating surface at siding roadways.
Invisibility due to dust clouds
Inadequate illumination at siding
Super elevated Carpet of siding platforms giving centrifugal-force towards track-lines.
Opening of B O B R boxes at tracks.
Inadequate vacuum pressure developed to withdraw the rakes deshunting the wagons amidst.
Transferring of HEMM through Railway phatak causing electrocution due inadequate clearance between high tension overhead line and ground level.

Saturday, August 1, 2009


Through a jungle of speaking animals, a sage, Vishnu Sharma, created a storehouse of wisdom in the form of short stories for children as well as adults. Those stories, written as far back as 2000 years ago, came to be known as “Panchtantra”. It has been translated into fifty different languages in some 200 different versions.
Panchtantra means five devices or treatises- (Panch=Five,Tantra= devices or treatises,) The stories under five different heads cover all aspect of safety management, personal life and cunning that one has to combat in life. The Panchtantra is divided into five volumes: -

1. The first Tantra = Mitra bhed (Rift between friends)
2. The second Tantra = Mitra samprati (Wining of friends)
3. The Third Tantra = Kakolukiyam (Untrustworthy friendship of a former
4. The fourth Tantra =Labdhapranasha (Presence of mind during emergencies)
5. The fifth Tantra =Aparikshita karaka (Untested situations)
In the collection of five stories of Panchatantra, I have tried to show what bearing these fables have on our safety skill, I have highlighted some of the morals embedded in the fable themselves in terms of safety insights and correlated with practical example of Coal fields .The diagram of causes of “Accident –Panchtantra” is given below: -



The Construction of a temple was on outside a town. Near a site a wood log was split. At lunch, the workers fixed a wedge between split wood and went for a bite. A Monkey had been watching the activities of the workers since morning. When the workers were away, the monkey descended from the tree and began to meddle with the log of wood. During his play, he noticed the wedge and began to withdraw it. But he forgot that his tail was hanging between the split ends of the log .As soon as the wedge was out, the split ends closed squeezing the tail of the monkey. The monkey tried hard to free himself, but in vain. No help was available nearby. By the time the workers returned from their lunch, the monkey was dead.


· Not to interfere in the affairs of others.
· Lack of experience and knowledge is harmful to anybody.


· Inexperienced helpers acting as drivers or operators of HEMM turned to accident.
· Undesignated persons working as electrician, mechanic, fitter etc. are also prone to accidents.
· Officers/In-charges interfering jurisdiction of others also invites problems and worsens the normal situation.


A Brahmin named Brahmadutta lived in the city. One day he decided to go to another city for some work. His mother asked who was accompanying him. He replied that he was going alone. Brahmadutta mother advised him to take somebody along, as having a companion is very useful while traveling.
Brahmadutta’s Mother gave him a crab and said, “This crab will be your companion on this journey”.
Brahmadutta proceeded on his journey with crab, which he kept insight a small camphor box. In the afternoon, he decided to take rest under the shade of a tree. Being tired he soon fell a sleep. While he was sleeping a snake emerged from the hollow of that tree. The snake was attracted by the smell of camphor box and tried to swallow it. The crab came out from the box, and killed the snake. When Brahmadutta wake up from his sleep, he found a dead snake lying near the camphor box. He realized that the crab had saved his life.

· Never underestimate any one’s usefulness.
· Follow higher up safety instruments.
· Never go alone in danger places.

· Pump khalasi without safety lamp in underground site and succumbed due to presence of black damp.
· Electrician without safety belt, gloves working on overhead lines fell down to the ground.
· Over-man without safety lamp or methanometer in gassy mines may save from impending danger of Fire lamp, Explosion.
· Go with helper/worker is remote places.

There once lived a Brahmin called Dev Sharma. After he got married, his wife gave birth to a child in due course. At the same time, a female mongoose had delivered and died. The Brahmin’s wife felt sorry for the baby mangoose and decided to look after it. She ever gave it her milk to drink, looking after it as if it were her own son.
One day the Brahmin’s wife went to fetch water after instructing the Brahmin to take care of the child. After some time the Brahmin went away to seek alms, leaving the child alone. In the mean time, a black cobra entered the house. Spitting his enemy the young mangoose was very angry. He fought with cobra and ultimately killed him. The mangoose was very happy that he had saved the life of his brother (The Brahmin’s child). He waited for the Brahmin or his wife to return, standing proudly at the door. When the Brahmin’s wife returned, she saw the mangoose mouth smeared with blood. Immediately she jumped to confusion that the mangoose has killed his son. In blind anger, she smashed the water pot she was carrying on mangoose head. The mangoose died instantly. When she entered the house she was surprised to find her child playing happily on the cot. A dead cobra lay under the cot. In a flash, she registered everything and began to wail in the grief.


· Don’t take any hasty action before checking out where you stand.
· Always analyze the situation, which will be able to decide on the right course of action.


· To save an electrolocuted person in haste without using non-conductive material such as wood/glove etc.
· Jumping from the crane, dozer and dumper during retreating from ramp by operators with out analyzing the situation.
· To rescue any unconscious person during re-opening of a sealed mine in haste without wearing dragger, proto mark -IV
· To suspend or charge sheet anyone without checking the fact or faults, ultimately loosing an effective human resource.


A weaver named Manthar once lived in a village earning his livelihood weaving clothes. While at work one day, his spinning wheel broke down. As the only means of his livelihood was destroyed, he becomes sad. He then decided to earn his livelihood by selling wood.

So he went to the seashore with an axe in hand. There he saw a huge rosewood tree and decided to axe it. A Yaksha who lived on this tree requested Manthar not to cut it down. But Manthar did not pay heed and asked the Yaksha to move to some other tree “I can earn a lot of money by selling the wood of this big tree,” said Manthar.

The Yaksha realized he was very poor and said, “ I am pleased by your innocence, I can fulfill one wish of yours.”

Very happy, Manthar requested the Yaksha to wait until he returned after asking his wife what to demand. The Yaksha agreed. As Manthar was walking home, he met his barber friend. He told him everything about the Yaksha and asked what he should demand. The barber advised him to ask for an empire, “you will be the king and I will be your minister,” said the barber.

Manthar liked the idea, but still went to ask his wife. At home he narrated the story to her and also mentioned what the barber had suggested.

Manthar wife told him “Your friend does not know the troubles of a King faces ruling over his subjects. Even his queen is burdened with tension. Your occupation is best for you. But there is one problem. You can do very little work with two hands. Ask for two extra hands to do more work. And don’t forget to ask for an extra head.”

Manthar returned to Yaksha and expressed his desire to have four hands and two heads. After the Yaksha granted his desire, Manthar returned to his village happily. As he was entering the village, the villagers took him for a demon and killed him.


· Ambition is laudable as long as it does not turn into a moral monster. The dividing line between ambition and greed is nebulous and crossing this could bring you grief.


The ambition people work on over time without keeping in view about health status get frequent sick, alcoholic, mental stress and ultimate invite accident.
· Using one’s whole deposited money in life, they purchase tippers/hyva in hope to earn more and more. But reality comes that they become unable to pay the monthly installments too. Very few become successful, otherwise many of them are getting higher mental stress and physical fatigue, Crime rate and suicide also.


Four Brahmins who were very good friends once lived in a village. While three were great scholars, the fourth was illiterate but had lots of practical knowledge.

One day, all the friends decided to visit another country to earn money. However, one of them decided not to give to any thing to the fourth friend from whatever they received from the king, saying, “ He is not a scholar and has not read any scriptures. He has only some practical knowledge, which does not entitle him to rewards from the king. So the second friend advised the fourth to turn back, as he was not a scholar.

The third, however, convinced the others to allow him to accompany them, saying “friends he too is our friend we must not abandon him like this” All of them then agreed to take him along and proceeded on their journey. As they were passing a forest, they saw some bones on the ground and decided to test their knowledge. One collected the bones and erected the skeleton through the powers of his mantra. The second added flesh, skin and blood to the skeleton through the powers of his mantra. As the third friend was with reference to to infuse
a new lease of life in to the animal through the powers of his mantra, the fourth friend said, “ Stop, this is a lion. Do not resurrect it because it will kill all of us.”
All the friends laughed at him, saying he was being unduly concerned and that they would certainly test their knowledge. When the fourth Brahmin realized his friends were adamant on resurrecting the lion, he climbed a tree to save his life. As soon as the lion was brought back to life, he devoured all the three Brahmins. When the lion went away, the fourth Brahmin came down the tree and quickly returned the home.


Theoretical knowledge without practical abilities and common sense is unless and ever harmful.
· To exploit scientific / technical knowledge one should know how to control it.
· Production of any commodity shall be such that it shall be manageable and marketable.

· Many employees use only theoretical knowledge without considering practical aspects or say common sense they fails to achieve the target safely.
· In case of any breakdown of HEMM dragline, Dumpers, shovel etc. many departments like E&M, Excv. Survey to use their theoretical knowledge and skill to rectify it, the result happened that costly spare parts or accessories got break down, damaged and consequently HEMM machine/man power could not be utilized properly and many times it created accident prone situations in fields.


In the conclusion, I have expressed that the sermons on safety in the panchtantra and narrated them with a typical causes of mining accident and tried to add them in to risk management plan designed to bring it easy language and keep in to their memories how to avoid accident and be safe.